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Adam Dubrowski
PhD

Professor

Canada Research Chair in Health-Care Simulation

Faculty of Health Sciences

Contact information

Science Building - Room 2075
North Oshawa
2000 Simcoe Street North
Oshawa, ON L1G 0C5

905.721.8668 ext. 6221

Adam.Dubrowski@uoit.ca


Research topics

  • simulation in health care
  • disruptive technologies
  • teaching and learning

Research and expertise

Background and interests

  • Academic background

    Dr. Adam Dubrowski obtained his PhD from the University of Waterloo in 2001. The following year, he completed his postdoctoral fellowship in neuroscience at Wilfrid Laurier University and the University of Western Ontario, after which he became a scientist with the Wilson Centre for Research and Education. At the same time, he became an Assistant Professor at the University of Toronto. He worked first with the Department of Surgery, and then in 2007 joined the Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing. In 2009, he was promoted to Associate Professor and joined the Hospital for Sick Children’s Learning and Research Institutes along with the Department of Pediatrics. In 2013, he became a faculty member with Memorial University’s Disciplines of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics, and was cross-appointed to the Marine Institute. After six years he returned to Oshawa, Ontario as a Professor in Ontario Tech University’s Faculty of Health Sciences.

  • Leadership background

    In 2002, while at the University of Toronto, Dr. Dubrowski worked with the Department of Surgery as the Director of Surgical Education Fellowship.  In 2007, he was appointed the Inaugural Director of the Centre for Research in Nursing Education at the Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, and strengthened the existing liaison between the new Education and Simulation Centres and post-graduate nursing programs.  In 2009, he joined the Hospital for Sick Children’s Learning Institute and formed its research arm, the Fellowship in Education.

    At Memorial University, he founded and Co-Chaired the Tuckamore Simulation and Scholarship Research Collaborative, an entity designed to increase the research and scholarship capacity across the various disciplines, schools and faculties of our many distributed campuses. In 2015, he was appointed the Inaugural Academic Director for the Clinical Learning and Simulation Centre, and in the same year received the Memorial Chair in Teaching and Learning. In 2019, his past leadership and academic accolades led to him being awarded the Canada Research Chair in Health-Care Simulation, which will focus on building SIMmersion, an immersive simulation research network.

  • Research and fundraising
    Dr. Dubrowski began his research career by studying factors that influence the acquisition of clinical skills, particularly the methods used for optimizing simulation in medical education and training. He studied the factors influencing retention, maintenance and transfer of skills, as well as the validation of innovative assessment methods to measure these effects. He draws on existing theories from other fields to evaluate and reshape existing medical education programs, and to develop new ones. One of his new research passions is to use iterative and utilization-focused program design, which focuses on systematic and iterative evaluation of the program in order to redesign it to be better in the future, as well as to create unique and relevant simulation programs in parts of the world where they do not currently exist. These places are generally in rural, remote and resource-poor or developing parts of the world. He has worked with local health professionals to implement simulation-based education programs in Ethiopia, Malawi and Haiti. Currently, he is applying the same design and evaluation process to the rural and remote parts of Ontario. To this end, he is developing simulation-based programs for medical residents and practitioners in rural and remote Newfoundland and Labrador, and for medics in offshore and marine industries. Finally, as educational technology is constantly evolving, so have his research interests. He now studies the use of disruptive technologies such as virtual learning environments or three-dimensional printing and manufacturing to fill existing gaps in the availability of simulation technology that can help prepare and improve the retention of skills.

Publications

  • Journal articles (since 2010)

    For a comprehensive list of publications, visit PubMed.

    • Whalen D, Dunne C, Dubrowski A, et al. (February 01, 2019). Diagnosis and Management of an Inferior ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Simulation Scenario. Cureus 11(2): e3995. doi:10.7759/cureus.3995 [Col]
    • Goudie C, Gill A, Shanahan J, Furey A, Dubrowski A. (January 31, 2019) Development of an Anatomical Silicone Model for Simulation-based Medical Training of Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injury Repair in Bangladesh. Cureus 11(1): e3991. doi:10.7759/cureus.3991 [SRA]
    • Patey C, Norman P, Bishop N, *Bartellas M, Dubrowski A. (December 21, 2018). Development, Evaluation, and Implementation of a New 3D Printed Tongue Depressor Dispenser. Cureus 10(12): e3764. doi:10.7759/cureus.3764 [SRA]
    • Dubrowski R, Dubrowski A. (December 20, 2018). Why Should Implementation Science Matter in Simulation-based Health Professions Education? Cureus 10(12): e3754. doi:10.7759/cureus.3754 [SRA]
    • Goudie C, Shanahan J, Gill A, Murphy D, Dubrowski A. (2018) Investigating the Efficacy of Anatomical Silicone Models Developed from a 3D Printed Mold for Perineal Repair Suturing Simulation. Cureus. August 24; 10(8): e3181 doi:10.7759/cureus.3181 [SRA]
    • MacDonald S, Manuel A, Dubrowski A, Bandrauk N, Law R, Curran V, Lee YW. (2018). Emergency Management of Anaphylaxis: A High Fidelity Interprofessional Simulation Scenario to Foster Teamwork Among Senior Nursing, Medicine, and Pharmacy Undergraduate Students. Cureus. Jul 3;10(7):e2915. doi: 10.7759/cureus.2915. PubMed PMID: 30186720; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6122644. [Col]
    • Renouf TS MD, Doyle M, Pollard M, Bankovic T, Dubrowski A. (2018). Collaborative Development of a Simulation-augmented Health Education Program in Resource-challenged Regions. Cureus. Jun 21;10(6):e2850. doi: 10.7759/cureus.2850. Review. PubMed PMID: 30148003; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6104897. [SRA]
    • Dunne C, Dunsmore AWJ, Power J, Dubrowski A. Emergency Department Presentation of a Patient with Altered Mental Status: A Simulation Case for Training Residents and Clinical Clerks. Cureus. 2018 May 4;10(5):e2578. doi: 10.7759/cureus.2578. PubMed PMID: 29984120; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6034765. [SRA]
    • Chimbe Phiri E, Chaputula B, Shawa E, Chiaravalli J, Sigalet E, Gabriel J, Dubrowski A. (2018). A Simulation Scenario Focused on Resuscitation of a Young Infant (Neonate) for Nurses and Midwives in Malawi, a Limited Resource Country. Cureus. May 22;10(5):e2673. doi: 10.7759/cureus.2673. PubMed PMID: 30042923; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6054361. [SRA]
    • Smith A, Addison R*, Rogers P, Stone-McLean J, Boyd S, Hoover K, Pollard M, Dubrowski A, Parsons M. (2018). Remote Mentoring of Point-of-Care Ultrasound Skills to Inexperienced Operators Using Multiple Telemedicine Platforms: Is a Cell Phone Good Enough? J Ultrasound Med. Nov;37(11):2517-2525. doi: 10.1002/jum.14609. Epub 2018 Mar 25. PubMed PMID: 29577381. [CO-SRA]
    • Khan Z, Rojas D, Kapralos B, Grierson L, Dubrowski A. (2018). Using a social educational network to facilitate peer-feedback for a virtual simulation. ACM Computers in Entertainment, Special issue on Deep Learning, Ubiquitous and Toy Computing, 16(2):Article 5.  [SRA]
    • Zhou F*, Jong R*, Heroux A, Dubrowski A. (2017). Hypothermia in a Rural Setting: An Emergency Medicine Simulation Scenario. Cureus. Dec 28;9(12):e1998. doi: 10.7759/cureus.1998. PubMed PMID: 29511605; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5837320. [SRA]
    • Stone-McLean J, Metcalfe B, Sheppard G, Murphy J, Black H, McCarthy H, Dubrowski A. (2017). Developing an Undergraduate Ultrasound Curriculum: A Needs Assessment. Cureus.9(9):e1720. doi: 10.7759/cureus.1720. PubMed PMID: 29188164; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5705172.
    • Doucet G, Ryan S, Bartellas M, Parsons M, Dubrowski A, Renouf T. (2017). Modelling and Manufacturing of a 3D Printed Trachea for Cricothyroidotomy Simulation. Cureus. 9(8):e1575. doi: 10.7759/cureus.1575. PubMed PMID: 29057187; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5647136. [Co-SRA]
    • Horwood C, *Williams KL, *Skinner T, Brown R, Renouf T, Dubrowski A. (2017). Trauma and Hypothermia in Antarctica: An Emergency Medicine Marine Simulation Scenario. Cureus. 9(6):e1341. doi: 10.7759/cureus.1341. PubMed PMID: 28706765; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5507760. [SRA]
    • Bagli D, Odeh R, Penna F, Grober E, Fernandez N, Lorenzo A, Satterthwaite L,
    • Dubrowski A. (2017). A Practice Platform for Systematic Development of Microsurgical Instrument Technique. Cureus. 9(5):e1253. doi: 10.7759/cureus.1253. PubMed PMID: 28649476; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5473722. [SRA]
    • Chiaravalli J, Lufesi N, Shawa E, Nkhoma V, Sigalet E, Dubrowski A. (2017). Management of an Obstructed Tracheostomy in a Limited-Resource Setting. Cureus. 9(5):e1246. doi: 10.7759/cureus.1246. PubMed PMID: 28616369; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5469676. [SRA]
    • Sigalet E, Wishart I, Lufesi N, *Haji F, Dubrowski A. (2017). The "Empty Chairs" Approach to Learning: Simulation-Based Train the Trainer Program in Mzuzu, Malawi. Cureus. 9(5):e1205. doi: 10.7759/cureus.1205. PubMed PMID: 28580202; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5451206. [SRA]
    • Mathieson S, *Williams KL, Dubrowski A. (2017). Pediatric Motor Vehicle-Pedestrian Accident: a Simulation Scenario for Emergency Medicine Trainees. Cureus. 9(2):e1052. doi: 10.7759/cureus.1052. PubMed PMID: 28367390; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5364092. [SRA]
    • *Williams KL, Rideout J, Pritchett-Kelly S, McDonald M, Mullins-Richards P, Dubrowski A. (2016). Mock Code: A Code Blue Scenario Requested by and Developed for Registered Nurses. Cureus. 8(12):e938. doi: 10.7759/cureus.938. PubMed PMID: 28123919; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5258193. [SRA]
    • *Jong R, *Krustev E, Heroux A, Dubrowski A. (2016). Smoke Inhalation in a Rural Emergency Setting: A Simulation Session. Cureus. 8(9):e784. PubMed PMID: 27774354; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5071173.
    • *Cheung JJ, *Koh J, Brett C, Bägli DJ, Kapralos B, Dubrowski A. (2016 October). Preparation With Web-Based Observational Practice Improves Efficiency of Simulation-Based Mastery Simul Healthc. 11(5):316-322. PubMed PMID: 27388862. [SRA]
    • Janes WC, *Silvey D, Dubrowski A. (2016 October). Are Educators Actually Coaches? The Implication of Teaching and Learning via Simulation in Education in Healthcare Professions. Cureus. 11;8(8):e734. doi: 10.7759/cureus.734. PubMed PMID: 27630806; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5017878. [SRA]
    • *Haji FA, *Cheung JJ, Woods N, Regehr G, de Ribaupierre S, Dubrowski A. (2016 September).Thrive or overload? The effect of task complexity on novices' simulation-based learning. Med Educ. 50(9):955-68. doi: 10.1111/medu.13086. PubMed PMID: 27562895. [SRA]
    • *Yeung E, Kulasagarem K, Woods N, Dubrowski A, Hodges B, Carnahan H. (2016 July). Validity of a new assessment rubric for a short-answer test of clinical reasoning. BMC Med Educ. 16:192. doi: 10.1186/s12909-016-0714-1. PubMed PMID: 27461249; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4962495. [Col]
    • *Koh J, Dubrowski A. (2016 June). Merging Problem-Based Learning with Simulation-Based Learning in the Medical Undergraduate Curriculum: The PAIRED Framework for Enhancing Lifelong Learning. Cureus. 19;8(6):e647. doi: 10.7759/cureus.647. PubMed PMID: 27446767; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4954640. [SRA]
    • *Black H, Sheppard G, Metcalfe B, Stone-McLean J, *McCarthy H, Dubrowski A. (2016 June). Expert Facilitated Development of an Objective Assessment Tool for Point-of-Care Ultrasound Performance in Undergraduate Medical Education. Cureus. 10;8(6):e636. doi: 10.7759/cureus.636. PubMed PMID: 27433415; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4938628. [SRA]
    • Damas E, Norcéide C, Zephyr Y, *Williams KL, Renouf T, Dubrowski A. (2016 June). Development of a Sustainable Simulator and Simulation Program for Laparoscopic Skills Training in Haiti. Cureus. 5;8(6):e632. doi: 10.7759/cureus.632. PubMed PMID: 27433411; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4934796. [SRA]
    • Renouf T, *Alani S, *Whalen D, Harty C, Pollard M, Morrison M, Coombs-Thorne H, Dubrowski A. (2016 May). City mouse, country mouse: a mixed-methods evaluation of perceived communication barriers between rural family physicians and urban consultants in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. BMJ Open. 2016 May 6;6(5):e010153. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010153. PubMed PMID: 27154475; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4861124. [SRA]
    • *Whalen D, Harty C, Ravalia M, Renouf T, *Alani S, Brown R, Dubrowski A. (2016 Mar). Helicopter Evacuation Following a Rural Trauma: An Emergency Medicine Simulation Scenario Using Innovative Simulation Technology. Cureus. 8;8(3):e524. doi: 10.7759/cureus.524. PubMed PMID: 27081585; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4829396. [SRA]
    • *Rojas D, Kapralos B, Dubrowski A. (2016). The Role of Game Elements in Online Learning within Health Professions Education. Stud Health Technol Inform. 220:329-34. PubMed PMID: 27046600. [SRA]
    • *Rojas D, Kapralos B, Dubrowski A. (2016). Improving the Acquisition of Basic Technical Surgical Skills with VR-Based Simulation Coupled with Computer-Based Video Instruction. Stud Health Technol Inform. 220:323-8. PubMed PMID: 27046599. [SRA]
    • Renouf T, *Whalen D, Pollard M, Dubrowski A. (2015 November). Emergency Physicians Think in Spirals. Cureus. 17;7(11):e381. doi: 10.7759/cureus.381. PubMed PMID: 26719824; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4689560. [SRA]
    • Dubrowski A, *Alani S, Bankovic T, Crowe A, Pollard M. (2015 Nov). Writing Technical Reports for Simulation in Education for Health Professionals: Suggested Guidelines. Cureus. 2;7(11):e371. doi: 10.7759/cureus.371. PubMed PMID: 26677421; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4671839. [SRA]
    • Parsons M, *Murphy J, *Alani S, Dubrowski A. (2015 October). Thermal Burns and Smoke Inhalation: A Simulation Session. Cureus. 21;7(10):e360. doi: 10.7759/cureus.360. PubMed PMID: 26623215; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4659688. [SRA]
    • Mathieson S, *Whalen D, Dubrowski A. (2015 September). Infant Trauma Management in the Emergency Department: An Emergency Medicine Simulation Exercise. Cureus. 7;7(9):e316. doi: 10.7759/cureus.316. PubMed PMID: 26487992; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4601907. [SRA]
    • Bismilla Z, Dubrowski A, Amin HJ. (2015 October). Program directors' perceptions of importance of pediatric procedural skills and resident preparedness. BMC Res Notes. 9;8:550. doi: 10.1186/s13104-015-1499-8. PubMed PMID: 26452343; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4600326. [Co-PRA]
    • Dubrowski A. (2015). Simulation as a suitable education approach for medical training in marine and off-shore industries: theoretical underpinning. Int Marit Health. 2015;66(3):164-7. doi: 10.5603/IMH.2015.0032. Review. PubMed PMID: 26394317. [PA]
    • Cowan B, Rojas D, Kapralos B, Mousea F, Dubrowski A. (2015). Effects of sound on visual realism perception and task performance. Visual Computer 31(9): 1207-1216. [SRA]
    • Tawadrous TT, Rojas D, Kapralos B, Hogue A, Dubrowski A. (2015). The effects of stereoscopic 3D on knowledge retention within a serious gaming environment. Multimedia Tools and Applications,
    • *Haji FA, *Rojas D, Childs R, de Ribaupierre S, Dubrowski A. (2015 August). Measuring cognitive load: performance, mental effort and simulation task complexity. Med Educ. 2015 Aug;49(8):815-27. doi: 10.1111/medu.12773. PubMed PMID: 26152493. [SRA]
    • *Yeung E, Woods N, Dubrowski A, Hodges B, Carnahan H. (2015 February). Establishing assessment criteria for clinical reasoning in orthopedic manual physical therapy: a consensus-building study. J Man Manip Ther. 23(1):27-36. doi: 10.1179/2042618613Y.0000000051. PubMed PMID: 26309379; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4459140. [Col]
    • Angus K, Parsons M, Cheeseman N, Dubrowski A. (2015 March). Asthma Exacerbation: An Emergency Medicine Simulation Scenario. Cureus. 2015 Mar 20;7(3):e258. doi: 10.7759/cureus.258. eCollection 2015 Mar. PubMed PMID: 26180682; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4494542. [SRA]
    • Cowan B, *Rojas D, Kapralos B, *Moussa, F, Dubrowski A. (2015). Effects of sound on visual realism perception and task performance. Visual Computer, 31(9):1207-1216. [SRA]
    • *Haji FA, Khan R, Regehr G, Drake J, de Ribaupierre S, Dubrowski A. (2015). Measuring cognitive load during simulation-based psychomotor skills training: sensitivity of secondary-task performance and subjective ratings. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2015 Mar 12. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25761454.
    • *Haji FA, Khan R, Regehr G, Ng G, de Ribaupierre S, Dubrowski A. (2015). Operationalizing elaboration theory for simulation instruction design: A Delphi study. Med Educ. 49(6):576-88. doi: 10.1111/medu.12726. [SRA]
    • *Haji FA, Khan R, Regehr G, Drake J, de Ribaupierre S, Dubrowski A. (2015). Measuring cognitive load of novices during simulation-based psychomotor skills training: sensitivity of dual-task performance and subjective ratings. Advances in Health Sciences Education. 2015; Epub ahead of print. doi: 10.1007/s10459-015-9599 [SRA]
    • Chan A, Singh S, Dubrowski A, Pratt D, Zalunardo N, Nair P, McLaughlin K, Ma IW. (2015) Part versus whole: a randomized trial of central venous catheterization education. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2015 Feb 1. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25638697. [Col]
    • Mahmood T, *Haji F, Damignani R, Bagli D, Dubrowski A, Manzone J, Truong J, Martin R, Mylopoulos M. (2015). Compliance Does Not Mean Quality: An In-Depth Analysis of the Safe Surgery Checklist at a Tertiary Care Health Facility. Am J Med Qual. 30(2):191. doi: 10.1177/1062860614567830. [Col]
    • Mahmood T, *Haji F, Damignani R, Bagli D, Dubrowski A, Mylopoulos M. (2015). Quality of the Safe Surgery Checklist: A mixed-methods exploration at a Canadian tertiary healthcare facility. Medical Education. 49(S1): 75. [Col]
    • *Rojas D, *Haji F, Shewaga R, Kapralos B, Dubrowski A. (2014). The impact of secondary-task type on the sensitivity of reaction-time based measurement of cognitive load for novices learning surgical skills using simulation. Stud Health Technol Inform. 196:353-9. [SRA]
    • *Rojas D, Cowan B, Kapralos B, Collins K, Dubrowski A. (2014). The effect of contextual sound cues on visual fidelity perception. Stud Health Technol Inform. 196:346-52. PubMed PMID: 24732534. [SRA]
    • Chan MW, Truong S, *Cheung JJ, Whitehead C, Dubrowski A. (2014). Do not forget the oldest old: design principles for the 80+. Stud Health Technol Inform.196:48-50. [SRA]
    • Yeung E, Woods N, Dubrowski A, Hodges B, Carnahan H. (2014) Sensibility of a new instrument to assess clinical reasoning in post-graduate orthopaedic manual physical therapy education. Man Ther. 2014 Oct 14. pii: S1356-689X(14)00183-0doi: 10.1016/j.math.2014.10.001. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25456273. [Col]
    • Angus K, Parsons M, Dubrowski A (2014) Heat Stroke: Emergency Medicine Simulation Scenario. Cureus 6(5): e178. doi:10.7759/cureus.178 [SRA]
    • Whalen D, Angus K, Dubrowski A (2014) Propranolol Overdose: An Emergency Medicine Simulation Scenario. Cureus 6(8): e198. doi:10.7759/cureus.198 [SRA]
    • Black H, Renouf T, Parsons M, Dubrowski A. (2014). Pregnancy and Privacy in an Emergency Department: A Simulated Session. Cureus 6(10): e216. doi:10.7759/cureus.216 [SRA]
    • Renouf T, Mitchell K, Hollett S, Dubrowski, A. (2014) Deteriorating Patient Scenario for Simulation-Based Training of Difficult Patient Encounters in the Emergency Room. Cureus 6(8): e192. doi:10.7759/cureus.192 [SRA]
    • Renouf T, Black H, Alani S, Dubrowski A. (2014) Body Packing with Cocaine: A Simulation Exercise. Cureus 6(9): e213. doi:10.7759/cureus.213 [SRA]
    • Manuel A, Macdonald S, Alani S, Dubrowski A. (2014) Ebola Virus Hemorrhagic Fever: A Simulation-Based Clinical Education Experience Designed for Senior Undergraduate Nursing Students. Cureus 6(11): e228. doi:10.7759/cureus.228 [SRA]
    • Levy R, Dubrowski A, Amin H, Bismilla Z. (2014). Procedural skills in paediatric residency: Re-evaluating the competencies. Paediatr Child Health. 19(4):180-4. [Co-PA]
    • Fouilloux V, Doguet F, Kotsakis A, Dubrowski A, Berdah S. (2014). A model of cardiopulmonary bypass staged training integrating technical and non-technical skills dedicated to cardiac trainees. Perfusion. May 19. pii: 0267659114534287. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24843115. [Col]
    • Isaranuwatchai W, Brydges R, Carnahan H, Backstein D, Dubrowski A. (2014). Comparing the cost-effectiveness of simulation modalities: a case study of peripheral intravenous catheterization training. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 19(2):219-32. [SRA]
    • *Haji F, DaSilva C, Diagle T, Dubrowski A. (2014). From bricks to buildings: adapting the MRC framework to develop programs of research in simulation education and training for the health professions. Simulation in Healthcare. 9(4):249-59. [SRA]
    • *Rojas D, Kapralos B, Hogue A, Collins K, Nacke L, Cristancho S, Conati C and Dubrowski A. (2013). The effect of sound on visual fidelity perception in stereoscopic 3-D. IEEE Transactions on System Man and Cybernetics part B. 43(6):1572-1583. [SRA]
    • Shewaga R, *Knox A, Ng G, Kapralos B, Dubrowski (2013). Z-DOC: A Serious Game for Z-Plasty Procedure Training. Stud Health Technol Inform. 84:404-6. [SRA] 
    • *Martin R, *Rojas D, *Cheung JJ, *Weber B, Kapralos B, Dubrowski (2013).  Perceptions of the roles of social networking in simulation augmented medical education and training. Stud Health Technol Inform. 184:276-8.  [SRA] 
    • *Koh J, *Cheung JJ, Mackinnon K, Brett C, Bagli D, Kapralos B, Dubrowski (2013). Web-based learning and computer supported collaborative learning for psychomotor skill acquisition: perspectives of medical undergraduate students. Stud Health Technol Inform. 184:222-4. [SRA] 
    • *Cheung JJ, Koh J, Mackinnon K, Brett C, Bägli D, Kapralos B, Dubrowski (2013). The use of web-based learning for simulation-based education and training of central venous catheterization in novice learners. Stud Health Technol Inform. 184:71-7.  [SRA] 
    • *Cheung JJ, Awad IT, Dubrowski (2013), Reply to Drs. Wong and Barrington. Reg Anesth Pain Med.;38(1):69-70. [SRA] 
    • *Rojas D, Kapralos B, Hogue A, Collins K, Nacke L, Cristancho S, Conati C, Dubrowski A. (2013). The effect of sound on visual fidelity perception in stereoscopic 3-D. IEEE Trans Cybern. 43(6):1572-83. [SRA]
    • Nix CM, Margarido CB, Awad IT, Avila A, *Cheung JJ, Dubrowski A, McCartney CJ. (2013). A scoping review of the evidence for teaching ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 38(6):471-80. [Col]
    • Safir O, Williams CK, Dubrowski A, Backstein D, Carnahan H. (2013). Self-directed practice schedule enhances learning of suturing skills. Can J Surg. 56(6):E142-7. [Col]
    • Hui Y, Safir O, Dubrowski A, Carnahan H. (2013). What skills should simulation training in arthroscopy teach residents? A focus on resident input. Int J Comput  Assist Radiol Surg. 2013 Mar 28. [Epub ahead of print]
    • *Grierson LE, Lyons JL, Dubrowski (2013). Gaze-down endoscopic practice leads to better novice performance on gaze-up displays. Med Educ;47(2):166-72. [SRA]
    • *Haji FA, Dubrowski A, Drake J, de Ribaupierre S. (2013). Needs assessment for simulation training in neuroendoscopy: A Canadian national survey. J Neurosurg. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 2321646 [Co-PA]
    • *Eliasz KL, Dubrowski A, *Rojas D, Knox ADC, *Haji FA, & Lyons J. (2013). When thoughts become actions: The detrimental effects of negative social-comparative feedback on performance, learning and self-efficacy beliefs in highly motivated learners. Published in JSEP 35: S27.
    • *Bassilious, E., DeChamplain, A., McCabe, I., Stephan, M., Kapralos, B., Mahmud, F. H., Dubrowski, A. (2012). Power defense: A video game for improving diabetes numeracy.  Proceedings of the ACM Human Factors in Computer Systems (CHI). [SRA] 
    • Grierson L, Barry M, Kapralos B, Carnahan H, Dubrowski A. (2012). The role of collaborative interactivity in the observational practice of clinical skills. Medical Education. 46(4):409-416. [SRA]
    • Cowan, B., Sabri, H., Kapralos, B., *Cristancho, S., *Moussa, F., Dubrowski, A. (2012).  SCETF:  Serious game surgical cognitive education and training framework. Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Games Innovation Conference. 130-133. [Co-SRA] 
    • *Rojas, D., *Cheung, J. J. H., Cowan, B., Kapralos, B., Dubrowski, A. (2012).  Serious games and virtual simulations debriefing using a social networking tool. Proceedings of the Computer Games Multimedia and Allied Technology (CGAT 2012).  [Co-SRA] 
    • Safir O, Dubrowski A, Williams C, Hui Y, Backstein D, Carnahan H. (2012). The Benefits of Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) Training in Simulation in Arthroscopy.  Performance. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics.173:412-7.  [Co-PA] 
    • *Rojas D, *Cheung JJ, Weber B, Kapralos B, Carnahan H, Bägli DJ, Dubrowski A. (2012). An Online Practice and Educational Networking System for Technical Skills: Learning Experience in Expert Facilitated vs. Independent Learning Communities. Performance. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. 173:393-7. [SRA] 
    • *Rojas D, Kapralos B, Cristancho S, Collins K, Hogue A, Conati C, Dubrowski A.  (2012).  Developing effective serious games: the effect of background sound on visual fidelity perception with varying texture resolution. Performance. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. 173:386-92. [SRA] 
    • *Cheung JJ, Rojas D, Weber B, Kapralos B, Carnahan H, Dubrowski A. (2012). Evaluation of tensiometric assessment as a measure of skill degradation. Performance. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. 173:97-101. [SRA] 
    • Doran D, Haynes BR, Estabrooks CA, Kushniruk A, Dubrowski A, Bajnok I, Hall LM, Li M, Carryer J, Jedras D, Bai YQ. (2012). The role of organizational context and individual nurse characteristics in explaining variation in use of information technologies in evidence based practice. Implement Sci;7:122. [Col]
    • *Cristancho S, *Moussa F, Dubrowski A. (2012). Simulation-augmented training program for off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: Developing and validating performance assessments. Surgery. (6):785-95. [SRA]
    • Brydges, R., Mallette, C., Pollex, H., Carnahan, H., Dubrowski, A. (2012). Evaluating the influence of goal-setting on intravenous catheterization skill acquisition and transfer in a hybrid simulation training context. Simulation in Healthcare. Jun 20. [Epub ahead of print] [SRA]
    • *Grierson, L. E. M., Dubrowski, A., So, S., Kistner, N. Carnahan, H. (2012). Trainees’ perceptions of practitioner competence during patient transfer. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 24:2, 111-116. [Co-PA]
    • Guadagnoli M, Morin MP, Dubrowski A. (2012). The application of the challenge point framework in medical education. Med Educ. 46(5):447-53
    • Rootman DB, Lam K, Sit M, Liu E, Dubrowski A, Lam WC. (2012). Psychometric Properties of a New Tool to Assess Task-Specific and Global Competency in Cataract Surgery. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 22:1-6. [Col]
    • *Grierson, L.E.M., Barry, M., Kapralos, B., Carnahan, H., Dubrowski, A. (2012). Online observational practice: Extending the simulation-based training of clinical skills. Medical Education. 46(4):409-416. [SRA]
    • *Cheung JJ, Chen EW, Darani R, McCartney CJ, Dubrowski A, Awad IT. (2012). The Creation of an Objective Assessment Tool for Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia Using the Delphi Method. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 37(3):329-33. [Col]
    • Dubrowski A, *Brydges R, Satterthwaite L, *Xeroulis G, Classen R. (2012). Do not teach me while I am working! American Journal of Surgery. 203(2):253-7. [PA]
    • Dubrowski A, *Morin MP. (2012). Evaluating pain education programs: an integrated approach. Pain Res Manag. 16(6):407-10. [PA]
    • Kapralos B, Johnston C, Finney K, Dubrowski A. (2011). A serious game for training health care providers in interprofessional care of critically-ill and chronic care patients. International Journal of Emerging Trends in Web Intelligence, Special Issue on Ubiquitous and Collaborative Computing. 39(4):273-281. [SRA]
    • Kapralos B, Hogan M, Pribetic A, Dubrowski A. (2011). Virtual simulations and serious games in a laptop-based university: Gauging faculty and student perceptions. Interactive Technology and Smart Education. 8(2):106-120. [SRA]
    • Hogan M, Kapralos B, Cristancho S, Finney K, Dubrowski A. (2011). Bringing community health nursing to life with serious games. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship. 8(1): Article 8. [SRA]
    • *Rojas, D., Kapralos, B., *Cristancho, S., Collins, K., Conati, C., Dubrowski, A. (2011). The effect of background sound on visual fidelity perception. In Proceedings of ACM Audio Mostly. [Co-SRA] 
    • *Cristancho, S., *Moussa, F., Monclou, A., Moncayo, C., Rueda, C., Dubrowski, A. (2011).  Progressive Simulation-Based Program for Training Cardiac Surgery-Related Skills. Stud Health Technol Inform. 163:150-155. [SRA] 
    • Cowan, B., Sabri, H., Kapralos, B., Moussa, F., *Cristancho, S., Dubrowski, A. (2011). A Serious Game for Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Procedure Training.   Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. 163:147-149. [SRA] 
    • *Grierson, L. E. M., Melnyk, M., Jowlett, N., Backstein, D., Dubrowski, A. (2011). Bench model surgical skill training improves novice ability to multitask:  A randomized controlled study Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. 163:192-198. [SRA] 
    • *Rojas, D., *Cristancho, S., Rueda, C., *Grierson, L. E. M., Monclou, A. A., Dubrowski, A. (2011). Development and validation of an instrumented bench-top simulator for the assessment of performance and outcomes of knot-tying skills.  Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. 163:517-523. [SRA] 
    • Kapralos, B., *Cristancho, S., Porte, M., Backstein, D., Monclou, A., and Dubrowski, A. (2011).   Serious games in the classroom: Gauging student perceptions. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. 163:254-260. [SRA] 
    • *Cheung, J., Chen, E., Al-Allaq, Y., Nikravan, N., McCartney, C., Dubrowski, A., Awad, I.T. (2011). Acquisition of Technical Skills in Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia Using a High-Fidelity Simulator. Stud Health Technol Inform. 163:119-124. [Col] 
    • Awad, I.T., Sinclair, C., Chen, E., McCartney, C., *Cheung, J., Dubrowski, A. (2011). Anesthesia Residents' Preference for Learning Interscalene Brachial Plexus Block (ISBPB): Traditional Winnie's Technique vs. Ultrasound- guided techniques. Stud Health Technol Inform.163:36-38. [SRA] 
    • McGillion M, Dubrowski A, Stremler R, Watt-Watson J, Campbell F, McCartney C, Victor C, Wiseman J, Snell L, Costello J, Robb A, Nelson S, Stinson J, Hunter J, Dao T, Promislow S, McNaughton N, White S, Shobbrook C, Jeffs L, Mauch K, Leegaard M, Beattie WS, Schreiber M, Silver I. (2011). The Postoperative Pain Assessment Skills pilot trial. Pain Research and Management. 16(6):433-9. [Col]
    • Lax L, Watt-Watson J, Lui M, Dubrowski A, McGillion M, Hunter J, Maclennan C, Knickle K, Robb A, Lapeyre J. Innovation and design of a web-based pain education interprofessional resource. Pain Research and Management. 16(6):427-32. [Col]
    • Kapralos, B., Johnston, C., Finney, K., Dubrowski, A. (2011). A serious game for training health care providers in interprofessional care of critically-ill and chronic care patients. Journal of Emerging Technologies in Web Intelligence.  3(4), 273-281. [SRA]
    • *Cristanchio, S., Moussa, F., Dubrowski, A. (2011). A Framework-based Approach to Designing Simulation-Augmented Surgical Education and Training Programs.  American Journal of Surgery. 202(3):344-51. [SRA]
    • *Hogan, M., Kapralos, B., *Cristancho, S., Finney, K., Dubrowski, A. (2011). Bringing community health nursing education to life with serious games. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship: 8(1): 8. [ SRA]
    • *Kurahashi AM., Harvey A, MacRae H, *Moulton CA, Dubrowski A. (2011). Technical skill training improves the ability to learn. Surgery. 149(1):1-6. [SRA]
    • Cowan B, Sabri H, Kapralos B, Porte M, Backstein D, Cristancho S, Dubrowski A. (2010). A serious game for total knee anthroplasty procedure education and training. Journal of Cybertherapy and Rehabilitation. 3(3):285-298. [SRA]
    • *McGregor, J., *Meng, S., Kapralos, B., Carnahan, H., Dubrowski, A. (2010). Internet mediated, peer-to-peer feedback for learning of patient transfer skills: prototype development and testing. Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2 (2):1670-1674. [SRA] 
    • Kapralos, B., *Hogan, M., Mallette, C., Wood, A., Finney, K., Hogue, A., Dubrowski, A. (2010). Serious games for Interprofessional education for critical care response teams.  Group Awareness in Online Work, Learning, and Games Workshop at HCI 2010. 10-13. [Co-SRA] 
    • Sabri, H., Cowan, B., Kapralos, B., *Moussa, F., *Cristancho, S., Dubrowski, A. (2010). Off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery procedure training meets serious games.  Proceedings of the International Symposium on Haptic Audio-Visual Environments and Games. 123-127. [Co-SRA]
    • Cowan, B., Sabri, H., Kapralos, B., *Porte, M., Backstein, D., *Cristancho, S., and Dubrowski, A. (2010). A serious game for total knee arthroplasty procedure education and training.  Journal of Cybertherapy and Rehabilitation, 3(3):285-293. [SRA]
    • Carnahan, H., Dubrowski, A., *Grierson, L. E. M. (2010). Temperature influences both haptic perception and force production when grasping. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 40, 55-58. [Col]
    • Stransky D, Wilcox LM, Dubrowski A. (2010). Mental rotation: Cross-task training and generalization. Experimental Brain Research. 16(4):349-60.
    • Carnahan H, Dubrowski A, Walsh CM. (2010). Medical education research: the importance of research design and a programmatic approach. Medical Education. 44(12):1161-3. [Col]
    • *Brydges R, Dubrowski A, Regehr G. (2010). A new concept of unsupervised learning: directed self-guided learning in the health professions. Acad Med. 85(10):S49-55. Review. [Col]
    • McCartney CJ, Dickinson V, Dubrowski A, Riazi S, McHardy P, Awad IT. (2010). Ultrasound provides a reliable test of local anesthetic spread. Reg Anesth Pain Med. J35(4):361-3. [Col]
    • Brydges R*, Carnahan H, Rose D, Dubrowski A. (2010). Comparing self-guided learning and educator-guided learning formats for simulation-based clinical training. J Adv Nurs. 66(8):1832-44. [SRA]
    • Brydges R*, Carnahan H, Rose D, Rose L, Dubrowski A. (2010). Coordinating progressive levels of simulation fidelity to maximize educational benefit. Acad Med. 85(5):806-12. [SRA]
    • Gonzalez DA, Dubrowski A, Carnahan H. (2010). The use of auditory cues in anticipatory control of grasping forces. Motor Control. 14(2):255-64. [Col]
    • Green S, Grierson LE*, Dubrowski A, Carnahan H. (2010). Motor adaptation and manual transfer: insight into the persistent nature of sensorimotor representations. Brain Cogn. 72(3):385-93. . [Col]

    * Indicates work done by a student.

  • Book chapters (since 2010)
    • Jewer J, Dubrowski A, *Dunne C, *Hoover, K, Smith A, Parsons M. (2019). Piloting a mobile tele-simulation unit to train rural and remote emergency health care providers. In Eds Wickramasinghe N. and Bodendorf F. Delivering Superior Health and Wellness Management with IoT and Analytics, Springer, New York.
    • Dubrowski R, Barwick M, Dubrowski A. (2018). “I wish I knew this before...”: An Implementation Science Primer and Model to Guide Implementation of Simulation Programs in Medical Education. In Safir O, Sonnadara R, Mironova P, Rambani R. Boot Camp Approach to Surgical Training. Springer International Publishing. [SRA]
    • Kapralos B, Uribe-Quevedo A, Dubrowski A. (2018). Immersive technologies for medical education. In Lee N (Ed). Encyclopedia of Computer Graphics and Games, Springer International Publishing. Pp 1-8. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-08234-9_130-1, Online ISBN 978-3-319-08234-9
    • Shiima Y, Duval-Armould JM, Dubrowski A, Hunt EA, Nishisaki A. (2016). Simulation research program development. In VJ Grant and A Cheng (Eds). Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation: Paediatrics. Chapter 29 (373-386). Springer International Publishing Switzerland.  eBook ISB 978-3-319-24187-6, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-24187-6, Series ISSN 2366-4479.
    • Kapralos B, Moussa F, Collins K, Dubrowski A. (IN PRESS) Levels of fidelity and multimodal interactions. In P. Wouters and H. van Oostendorp (Eds.) Techniques to Improve the Effectiveness of Serious Games, Springer Advances in Game-based Learning Book Series.
    • Kapralos B, Moussa F, Dubrowski A. (2014). An overview of virtual simulations and serious games for surgical education and training. In A. Brooks, S. Braham, & J. Lain (Eds), Technologies of Inclusive Well-Being, Chapter 14 (pp. 289-306). Springer Series Studies in Computational Intelligence: Heidelberg, Germany.
    • de Ribaupierre S, Kapralos B, *Haji F, Stroulia E, Dubrowski A & Eagleson R. (2014). Healthcare training enhancement through virtual reality and serious games. In Ma M, Lakhmi C, Jain L & Anderson P (Eds.), Virtual Augmented Reailty and Serious Games for Healthcare 1, Chapter 2 (pp.9-27). Springer-Verlag: Berlin, Heidelberg.
    • Bock O, Dubrowski, A. (2013). Psychmotor Skills. In Lanzer P. Catheter-Based Cardiovascular Interventions: A Knowledge-Based Approach. Springer Berlin Heidelberg (https://books.google.com/books?isbn=3642276768).
    • Dubrowski A, MacRae H. (2010). Measurement of competence. In: Park A, Klein RV, editors. Minimally invasive surgery training: theories, methods, outcomes [Internet]. Washington: Department of Health & Human Services (US), National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine; 2010 January [cited 2010 May 25]; Chapter 2. 

    * Indicates work done by a student.

     

Research

  • Education
    • PhD, University of Waterloo (Kinesiology), 2001
    • Master of Science, University of Waterloo (Kinesiology), 1997
    • Bachelor of Science, University of Waterloo (Kinesiology), 1996
  • Grants

    Tri-council funding (2010 to current)

    • Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Research Tools and Infrastructure (Research Tools and Instruments - Category1). Serious games development and testing facility: Developing serious games that maximize knowledge transfer and retention. Kapralos B, (Co-PI), Dubrowski (Co-PI). 2013. ($28,993).
    • Canadian Patient Safety Institute and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Partnerships for Health Improvement/Building Skills, changing practice: simulator training for hand hygiene protocols. McGeer A, Dubrowski A (Co-PI), Beduz M. A. 2009-2011. ($425,616).
    • CIHR-Community Alliances for Health Research & Knowledge Exchange on Pain, J. Henry (PI) $2,500,000. Theme 2: E-learning interprofessional curriculum resources for pre- licensure health science students across Canada. Watt-Watson J. (PI), McGillion M, Lax L, Hunter J, Dubrowski A (Co-PI).  2008-2012.  ($350,000).
    • Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada; Image, Text, Sound and Technology Program. Interactive community simulation environment for Public Health curriculums. Kapralos B, *Hogan M, Muirhead B, Dubrowski A (Col), 2009-2010. ($49,452).
    • Collaborative Health Research Projects (NSERC/CIHR). Integration of bio-physiological information with a point-of-care decision support system for safer patient care. Doran DM, Goubran R, Doherty S, Knoefel F, Dubrowski A (Co-I). Industry partner collaborators: Graves A (Nortel), Smith A (Hinext), RIM, Lefebre N (Saint Elizabeth Healthcare), Remus S (St. Michaels Hospital). 2008-2010. ($455,310).
    • Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council. Self regulated motor learning: mechanisms and application. Dubrowski A (PI). 2008-2013. ($75,000).

    Ministry and government funding (2010 to current)

    • Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency. Healthcare Solutions, Medical Education and Three-dimensional Printing in Newfoundland and Labrador. Dubrowski A (PI), Bartellas M, Ryan S, Paterno G. 2017-2019. ($1,450,000)
    • Memorial Chairs of Teaching and Learning. Building Simulation Teaching and Scholarship Capacity in Rural and Remote Newfoundland and Labrador.  Dubrowski, A., (PI). 2015-2017. ($30,000).
    • Ministry of Health and Long Term Care via SIM-one Simulation Research Grant. A Serious Game for Medical-Based Cultural Competence Education and Training. Kapralos, B., Dubrowski, A. (Co-PI), Randall, N., Brudnoy, L., Sheppard, A., Yoksimovitch, M., Collins, K., Haji, F. 2013-2014.  ($25,000).
    • Ministry of Health and Long Term Care via SIM-one Simulation Research Grant. Observational Practice and Educational Networking : Extending the Simulation-based Education beyond the Simulation Laboratory.  Grierson, L., Dubrowski, A., Kapralos, B., Brydges, R., Bernard, C., Musson, D. 2013-2014.  ($25,000).
    • Whitehead, C., Dubrowski, A. (Co-PI), McCarthy, L., Carnahan, H., Kapralos, B., Cheung, J. H. Assessing the interest, acceptability, and usability of social networking to support a primary care patient-centered model for vulnerable older adults. Women’s College Hospital, AFP. ($30,000).
    • Workers Compensation Board (WCB) of Manitoba, Research and Workplace Innovation Program (RWIP). Development and testing of a serious game to decrease injury in the fire service by training safer lifting techniques and decision making skills. Murphy B, Dubrowski A (Col), Hogue AR, Kapralos B, McLellan TM, Mior SA, Triano J, Passmore SR.  2012-2014. ($199,167).

    International funding (2010 to current)

    • Canada-Latin America and the Caribbean Research Exchange Grants (LACREG). Building Capacity for Effective Simulation Augmented Training of Health Care Workers: Development, Implementation and Evaluation of a Sustainable Program. Dubrowski, A. (PI), Norceide, C. 2015-2016. ($15,000).
    • Cooperative Research Project at RIE, Shizuoka University, Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Japan. Multimedia interaction interfaces in collaborative e-Learning environments.  Kapralos B, Jenkin M, Vassileva J, Taki H,  Nonaka H, Collins K, Dubrowski A (Co-I), Matsuda N, Todorova N, Vynnycky M,  Hogue A, Nacke L, Brimkov B, Sakai S,  Inokowa H,  Kanev M. 2012-2013. ($8,000.00).
    • Development Partnership in Higher Education: British Council. A training cascade for Ethiopian surgical and obstetrical care: An interprofessional, educational, leadership and skills training program. Derbew M, Dubrowski A (Co-PI), Kneebone R.  2008-2011. ($130,000).
  • Graduate student research

    Currently, with the support from Canada Research Chair funding, Dr. Dubrowski is forming a multidisciplinary team of undergraduate and graduate students interested in innovation and application of disruptive technologies in health-care simulation. The team will work with other students from across campus and regional partners to form the SIMmersion research network. At this point, Dr. Dubrowski is looking for:

    PhD students

    • software/mobile application/web design
    • personalized simulation
    • assistive devices/medical equipment
    • implementation science

    Master of Science (MSc) students

    • curricular human performance and learning
    • design:
      • immersive technologies
      • digital art/sculpting 

    Opportunities for PhD students

    Software/web design 

    • Why: Challenges associated with additive manufacturing in health care include the lack of in-house manufacturing facilities, and the lack of trained expertise or professionals. One way in which SIMmersion fills this gap is by developing and implementing a web-based, sharable database of 3D-printable and immersive files.
    • Who: Dr. Dubrowski seeks a PhD student who will design, build, test and implement an online, user-friendly sharable database, and integrated mobile application.
    • Impact: The student will build the first and only global, freely available and sharable digital library that will improve the training and performance of health-care professionals in Canada and the world.

    Personalized simulation

    • Why: This refers to the process of converting any 3D medical image of complex anatomy into a 3D printed and/or virtual model. Evidence suggests this helps health-care professionals with diagnoses, decision-making, rehearsal and training. Currently, this is a multi-step process, with a potential for human error at every step.
    • Who: Dr. Dubrowski seeks a PhD student who will design, build and test an automated image processing system for extraction and conversion of complex anatomy into digital model files. The process would seamlessly integrated with the sharable database.
    • Inpact: The student's work will affect patient outcomes by enabling health-care professionals to collaborate, pre-plan and rehearse complex procedures and operations.

    Assistive devices/medical equipment

    • Why: Although the main focus of SIMmersion is simulation, design and prototyping of medical equipment, assistive devices is one main area of interest for future expansion.
    • Who: Dr. Dubrowski seeks a PhD student who will explore the uses of 3D printing and immersive technologies in these fields.
    • Impact: The student's work will create new assistive devices and/or novel medical equipment that will change the quality of life and/or the productivity of health-care facilities.

    Implementation science

    • Why: Many programs and initiatives fail not because they are flawed, but because they are not implemented properly. We know that factors such as readiness for change, political drivers, human resources, availability of technology and education, are amongst many factors that determine if a new program or initiative reaches its full potential or fails. SIMmersion is one of such initiatives.
    • Who: Dr. Dubrowski seeks a PhD student who will be able to employ contemporary models of implementation science to aid and study the implementation of SIMmersion programs, products and achievements throughout Canada.
    • Impact: The student's work will contribute to the quality of implementation, maximizing the chances of success and sustainability of this initiative in the future.

    Opportunities for MSc students

    Curricular mapping

    • Why: Ontario Tech University's Faculty of Health Sciences is a unique simulation training environment that may need unique solutions. Many health-care sectors have not traditionally taken advantage of simulation, mainly because of the lack of simulators designed for their needs. SIMmersion will address this problem by design of simulators to address the needs of these groups.  
    • Who: Dr. Dubrowski seeks a MSc student who will focus on needs assessment and development of a digital library that can be used in Ontario Tech's curricula (e.g. Medical Laboratory Science).
    • Impact: The student's work will directly affect how we train health-care professionals in the future on a local, national and global level.

    Human performance and learning

    • Why: Although simulation is effective, it is also expensive and not easily accessible in some areas. Research evidence is critical for a wide acceptance of innovative solutions that are both effective and economical.
    • Who: Dr. Dubrowski seeks a MSc student who will focus on the assessment of efficacy of low-cost simulators solutions developed by SIMmersion, as compared to commercially available ones.
    • Impact: The student's work will help save money while improving the equality of training and accessibility of simulation at the local, national and international level.

    Immersive technologies

    • Why: The ability for health-care professionals to interact with complex anatomy improves their learning and decision-making abilities. Similarly, being virtually immersed within complex anatomy is another way to help these professionals learn and make decisions.
    • Who: Dr. Dubrowski seeks a MSc student who will focus on the development of immersive environments to augment simulation-based education.
    • Impact: The student's work will improve the quality of health-care professionals’ training by providing them with innovative ways to visualize and interact with complex anatomy and pathologies.

    Digital art/sculpting

    • Why: Physical or virtual simulated objects must be perceived by the learners as proxies to reality. However, creating very realistic models may be computationally impossible or extremely expansive. Therefore the design must be parsimonious: effective yet efficient.
    • Who: Dr. Dubrowski seeks two MSc students who will focus on determining physical materials and virtual design properties that make simulators more realistic.
    • Impact: The students' work will make simulators more realistic, which will increase their effectiveness as teaching tools for health-care professionals.